Compact white antelope with gray head, white body in summer changing to gray extending over back and side (haunches white) in winter. Longer winter coat gives noticeable neck ruff. White cross on face below dark brown mat of hair on forehead. Hoofs broad. Thin, white tail has short tuft at end. Young born tan. Both male and female have long, weakly ringer horns spiraling upward in a gentle V. Female horns longer but more slender. Average horns 28 1/2 in., large 32 to 37 in. up to 43 in. Male weight 220 to 330 lbs.; females weight 110 to 200 lbs.
Food Habits: Grazer. Also takes leaves and shoots. In Sahara, nomadic in quest of green forage in wake of rain.
Habitat: Native to sand dunes, gravel desert, and rock plateaus. Exotics use both grassy openings and brush. Often retreat up hillsides into heavy brush when disturbed.
Water and Climate: Rarely drink unless no green food available, then drink once daily. Do best in dry warm climate. Cold weather hard on them (especially youngsters) but usually do reasonably well if they can retreat into heavy brush for shelter. Liable to parasite problems if in moist climate.
Temperament and Compatibility: Generally mild, except new mothers fiercely aggressive. Gregarious. Generally compatible except with oryx. Hybridize with oryx, including gemsbok. New mothers will attack humans and vehicles
Breeding season: Breed all year (peak in May to early August)
Birth season: Anytime (peak January to March)
Gestation 8 1/2 months with 1 young per birth
Sexual maturity - Male 30 months (or as early as 24 months, possibly as young as 18 months; female 25 1/2 months (or as early as 12 1/2 months)